Features and habitat
The first thing that catches your eye is the appearance: it is flat, I think many have seen flounder in the photo, this is due to the fact that she is an inhabitant of the bottom. This exotic kind of fish is not from birth, its fry are similar to other ordinary fish, and only as they grow older they begin to resemble adults.
Their eyes are first located on the sides of the body, then one eye - the right or left, gradually moves to the other opposite side, and the side where both eyes remain becomes the "top" of the fish, and the other belly, which becomes light and coarse, flounder fish constantly slides along the bottom.
It can live at a depth of up to 200 m, but the most comfortable depth for it is 10-15m. The geography of this fish is quite wide, because there are various types of flatfish - those that live in the oceans:
- Black Sea flounder
- and the inhabitants of the rivers - freshwater flounder.
Sea and river flounder fish in appearance they are not very different, they can differ only in size, marine counterparts reach large sizes. A case is known when sailors caught a giant flounder weighing 100 kilograms and about two meters in size.
Habitats are also different, marine is found most often in the subtropical climate, the Atlantic Ocean, and also found in the North, White, Black and White Seas. The river also lives in the sea, but it can swim far inland, found in the Mediterranean Sea, in the Black Sea and in rivers shared with them.
It is also found in the fairway of the Yenisei River. There is a separate species - the Black Sea flounder, which is very much appreciated by commercial fishers, has such ability as mimicry, leads a sandy lifestyle and hunting.
Character and lifestyle
As mentioned above flounder dwells at the bottom that forms her lifestyle. Although by nature a flounder, a sea fish is a predator, but this does not make it active, it prefers to hunt in ambush.
They lie still, if necessary burrow into the sand and soil, wriggling in wave-like movements, make a depression and swell the soil around them, then lie in a hole and the settled soil covers its body.
But this is not all that a fish can do to disguise - its body has a picture on the sighted side, which can change to adapt to the environment, which gives it even greater invisibility. This ability is called mimicry for all creatures, but all types of bondage can use it, blind fish are not able to change their color.
In the event of a threat or danger, the flounder rises sharply from the bottom, flips over to its side and abruptly floats away the safe area, then again lies on the blind side and hides
Flounder has various “dishes” on the “table”, its diet is diverse: plankton, small mollusks, worms, as well as crustaceans and crustaceans. She can also eat shrimp and small fish - for example, capelin, if they swim very close to the place where she took refuge, even though she does not like flounder and predatory fish she often leaves her shelter, so that she herself does not become someone's dinner. She prefers to bury herself in sandy soil, there she can also find food for herself, her jaws are well adapted for this.
Reproduction and longevity
Due to the diversity of species and wide habitat, spawning flounder also takes place in a significant time period, captures almost all seasons. Reproduction can take place from May to winter, and some species of flounder spawn under the ice. Each flounder subspecies has a specific time for spawning.
The way of life makes the flounder to be a loner, because it’s easier to get food for yourself, but when the time comes for reproduction, different species gather and get stuck in jambs. This leads to the cross of several species.
Flounder reaches the age of puberty by 3 to 4 years, different species are able to lay from 100 to 13 million eggs. Their average size in diameter is about one millimeter, but maybe one and a half.
The incubation period of the development of eggs depends on geographical and climatic conditions: in a tropical climate at high water temperature, embryonic development can take place per day, in the northern latitudes, the incubation can last about 2 and a half months.
When the eggs are in free swimming in the water, they are absolutely transparent, but when they go down to the bottom, they begin to change. Metamorphosis changes their appearance - the fins, anal and dorsal are shifted to the sides, other parts of the body undergo the same changes.
The appeared fry actively begin to search for writing, at the first stage they feed on zooplankton, as their diet becomes more saturated, the appearance undergoes further changes - the eye from the left side moves to the right, and the left side becomes the bottom.
Sometimes parties can be formed on the contrary, which is why ichthyologists cannot answer yet, but it has been noticed that such a deviation from the norm occurs more often in river flounders.
The life expectancy of females can be slightly more than 30 years, while males are 20-25 years old. Completing description of flounder it is worth noting what a huge evolutionary path of development this fish went, she learned to hide invisibly at the bottom, dwell in different conditions and breed.
You will not see flounder-like fish, since it is not possible to confuse it with anyone. If you ask someone which flounder fish, then you will immediately get the answer - flat, Vedas is its unique feature. The entire diversity of species is divided into 6 families, most of which are marine, the industrial catch of which is put on stream in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Amateur flounder fishing is more common on the black, white, Mediterranean and Baltic seas. Recently, the demand for flounder has grown and the United States. On the Black Sea coast, the populations of this fish fell into decline due to the constant capture that Turkish demand led to.