The space of Siberia is striking in its territorial scope - 77% of the lands of Russia. The western and eastern parts are traditionally distinguished with a variety of natural conditions and rich fauna.
Birds of Siberia represented by more than two hundred species. These are southern birds, penetrating deep to the north, taiga inhabitants, waterfowl of the forest-steppe, steppe zones. Names of birds of Siberia the list will take more than one page of text. Among them there are many birds, known in other territories, but there are rare representatives that can not be found anywhere else in the world.
Forest taiga birds
On the vast areas of taiga zones, the life of birds is unevenly distributed. Birds are mostly kept near lakes and in river valleys. The forest provides the inhabitants with food and a nesting place. Although taiga winters are severe, here you can protect yourself from the winds. Thanks to loose snow, many forest birds of Siberia take refuge from cold weather and natural enemies.
Siberian birds in winter do not make real flights, although seasonal migrations occur. The unique avian world of taiga is less affected by humans than, for example, a squad of mammals. Forest fires that change the landscape have an effect on birds.
Some species are being resettled: promotion of forest-steppe inhabitants, attraction of passerines to the deciduous vegetation of the scorched territories. The most characteristic taiga birds are represented by the grouse family. They feed on the ground, trees, shrubs, plant foods. Lead a sedentary lifestyle.
In Siberia, there are 4 species of capercaillie, which differ in the characteristics of the color from dark to white-bellied. Many transitional species of individuals at the borders of their habitats. They are found in mixed forests, but they prefer the world of pines and cedars - the main food supply in winter. Sedentary life sometimes alternates with summer migrations in search of a pebble. Swallowing small stones is necessary to grind food in the stomach.
The bird is large and cautious; it has always been the object of commercial hunting. The weight of an individual is from 2 to 5 kg, there are also larger specimens. Males are larger than females. They feed on needles, buds, young shoots of plants during the day, and sleep in the snow at night. They are kept in packs of several dozen individuals, but there are also single individuals. Live on average up to 10 years.
A chicken the size of a chicken. Males of black color and blue-violet tint, females - red-white-brown. Grouse has a characteristic lyre-shaped tail with a white undertail and white wing mirrors.
They live not only in the taiga, but also in the forest-steppe zone. It is found in both coniferous and deciduous forests. Flocks feed near populated areas, in clearings, burned areas, make overnight flights to safe forests.
Small representatives of the grouse family, weighing up to 400 g, the size of a pigeon. The name reflects the characteristic motley color of red-gray, white, black stripes and spots. Protective camouflage helps camouflage itself on the ground and among the trees of the taiga forest. Grouse prefer spruce massifs, the proximity of water with small pebble.
Birds are kept in pairs, their affection for each other is highly developed. They fly between the trunks, through thickets cleverly, quickly, but not for long. They cannot stand open spaces, they need a canopy of wood in which they skillfully hide - they take poses in the direction of the branches, snuggling and stretching themselves on the plexus of bushes and trees.
Savage (humble grouse)
It is easy to confuse the bird at a distance with a related hazel grouse, although the wild grouse is larger, weight up to 600 g, body length with tail - about 40-43 cm. Like most chicken relatives, the wings are dull and short, but the wild fly flies well.
Paws are protected from cold by feathers, down. The color is chestnut-black with ocher spots and streaks. Females have a reddish tint.
Dikusha is a secretive inhabitant of the taiga corners of the thicket, subtle on the lower branches of trees. The bird is known for its silence and credulity to humans, which was often used by hunters who destroyed entire broods.
For this feature, the wild woman was called meek or stone. Being endemic, it was on the verge of complete extermination. The bird was listed in the Red Book.
Widely distributed throughout the forest zone. The body length of the bird is 23-34 cm, the weight of an individual is approximately 100-190 g. The color of the plumage is gray on the back, wings, and head. Abdomen and chest light, with transverse stripes. The eyes are yellow-orange. Known bird crowing is sometimes a three-part “cuckoo-cuckoo,” and even longer during intense arousal.
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Cuckoo avoids continuous coniferous forests, prefers mixed or deciduous. It inhabits various groves, thickets of floodplains of the rivers, where it parasitizes in the nests of passerines.
Large sandpiper, weight 250-450 g, is notable for a long beak and a dense physique. Color from above from gray-red and brown spots, and from below - with characteristic wavy striping. A migratory bird appears in March, and after nesting and rearing, a brood of chicks leaves the region in the fall.
Woodworm nutrition is based on earthworms, insects, and larvae. Vegetable feed is consumed to a lesser extent. It collects prey with a long beak, on which nerve endings pick up any movement underground.
There are many passerine species in the taiga that are very different in appearance and lifestyle. Birds of Siberia on a photo confirm this diversity.
A small resident of taiga forests of spruce, cedar, fir, larch. In winter, roams to places near the settlements. The length of the kuksha is 24-30 cm, the weight is 80-90 g. You can recognize the bird by the black crown and bright red coverts. The back is grayish-brown, the throat is light gray. Beak, legs are black. The tail is rounded.
The bird is in constant motion, flying quickly and easily. It feeds on berries, flakes cones, robs in other people's nests. He’s not too afraid of a person, lets him in at a distance of 2 meters.
Kuksha is known for its extreme endurance in extreme frosts down to minus 70 ° С - the bird rescues in squirrel nests or in deep snow.
The name of the bird reflects an addiction to the main food - pine nuts. Large stocks of seeds, acorns, nuts are distributed in hiding places in different places. This saves not only the hostess of supplies from starvation in frosty winters, but also serves as a treat for agile field mice, hares, even bears.
Over a short summer, hardworking birds collect approximately 70,000 nuts, which they can take in portions of up to 100 pieces in a special hyoid bag.
A small bird with a long beak weighs only 130-190 g. Body length is about 30 cm, tail length is 10-12 cm. The plumage is brown in color with white spots. Head of uniform color.
Pine forests are noisy birds. Whistles, singing, screaming - all can be heard in the communication of these wonderful birds. In Tomsk there is a monument to cedar, a small symbol of great Siberia.
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Small finch, body length about 15 cm, spread over a wide area up to the forest-tundra. Prefer deciduous, mixed forests. In the northern regions of Siberia, finches leave their nests for winter; in the southern part, they lead a settled life.
The plumage of bright colors: the head is gray-blue, brownish-red spots on the chest, cheeks, wings and tail of a black color, green tail. Finches live in places close to populated areas, and deaf places are avoided.
This makes it easier for birds to provide food. The feed is seeds, grains, greens, insects, garden pests.
Cold is not the main reason forcing birds to leave their homes. The lack of food supply is the main reason, and for waterfowl - frozen ponds. Wintering birds of Siberia - these are hardy and agile omnivorous birds that feed on everything they find.
Great Spotted Woodpecker
Black and white color of a small bird, weighs about 100 g, with a red cap is well known to many. A knock on a tree from powerful blows of a beak reflects the active life of woodpeckers. A small tail of elastic feathers serves as a support for movement along the trunk in search of food. A woodpecker flies well, but prefers to climb trees. With a long tongue, he pulls out from under the bark of various larvae and insects.
Other relatives live in Siberia: small spotted woodpecker, green and three-toed woodpecker. Distinguish their small features of color and structure.
Tufted bird in Siberia unmistakably recognized by its remarkable coloring. The color of the feathers is mostly gray-brown with a black throat and mask, yellow and white markings on the wings. In winter, waxwings roam in search of food. They feed on all berries, especially preferring the fruits of mistletoe.
The greed of birds leads to the fact that the intestines are released undigested food. The weight of eaten per day exceeds its own weight of birds. Waxworms are considered good seed distributors. Sometimes waxwings come across fermented berries, from which they get drunk, fall and often die.
A chunky bird the size of a sparrow. You can recognize a bird by its bluish-gray back and whitish bottom, a straight long beak and a black strip passing through the eye.
The name of the bird reflects the peculiarities of movement - the nuthatch scans the trunks vertically from bottom to top and vice versa. Sedentary bird is found in coniferous, mixed, deciduous forests.
The diversity and stability of the food supply attract many birds of prey in Western and Eastern Siberia. They live both in taiga forests and in the steppes, forest-steppes. Siberian birds of prey include species of settled feathered and southern representatives migrating to the central zones for wintering.
Brownish-brown bird of medium size. A tail with a distinctive clipping. Hovering and circling in flight at an altitude of 100 m. The voice of a kite is like a trill, sometimes heard as a whistle.
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In nutrition - a polyphage. It cannot actively attack prey due to weak paws. In the diet, rodents, frogs, small birds, carrion, garbage, biting fish.
Predator of medium size - the length of the wing is approximately 30 cm, weight 1.0-1.5 kg. The bird's eyes are yellow-orange in color, arranged with a turn forward, which allows them to better see the object. Visual acuity exceeds human 8 times. The hearing is sensitive.
The color of the bird is mainly dark in color with slate shades. I will lower the body of yellow-ocher tones. Young individuals are decorated with mottles. The structure of the body allows the predator to easily fly through the thickets. The hawk has a long tail, cut straight, short wings. The ability to maneuver, take off quickly, make turns, stop abruptly gives an advantage in hunting.
The ration is based on birds. Pigeons, pheasants, hazel grouse, tits become prey. Hawks sometimes prey on small mammals, insects. The victims are eaten with feathers, bones, wool.
A large bird whose wingspan reaches 2 meters. The color is monophonic, brown, with a black “cap” on the head of adults. The tail is long, rounded. Very strong paws feathered to the toes. Soars at high altitude. He walks and runs perfectly on the ground. The voice is like barking, but can produce melodic trills.
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It hunts hares, gophers, ducks, newborn roe deer and deer. Cases of attacks on domestic animals are known. Do not disdain carrion.
Small falcon with a long tail. The color is reddish brown. In search of prey, it “shakes” in one place with raised wings. Prefers forest-steppes, open taiga zones.
In the diet, mouse-like rodents, reptiles, small birds. Predator is useful for extermination of agricultural pests. Looking for prey mainly from the ground.
The predator has a characteristic "owl" head. The color is variable, but the bottom remains light, the top with many transverse mottles is brownish-gray. The flight of birds is like an eagle. Many hover, freeze in place with a turn against the wind. They live in forests with swamps and open glades. The main condition is a large number of snakes and remoteness from human habitation.
Large predator of two-tone color: brown top and white bottom. There is a dark spot on the white head through the eye. Hunts over a pond. Spikes on the fingers to hold the fish. For prey rushes from the scattering, sometimes completely immersed in water. Brushes off on the fly. Osprey hunting sites indicate fish-rich bodies of water.
For the predator, not only the food supply is important, but also the presence of high-stem vegetation, a certain depth, purity and speed of the water flow. Nesting conservatism is developed. One nesting site is used for 15-18 years.
In Siberia, the area of water bodies exceeds the size of all territories of European states in aggregate. Lakes Baikal and Teletskoye are the largest in terms of fresh water reserves. Many birds of Western Siberia waterfowl. Their world is full of pristine purity of protected areas.
Very large bird of snow-white color. The mass of an individual is up to 12-13 kg. Yellow-black beak. Differs in vigilance. It lives in deaf overgrown ponds where there are no fishermen. The bird is very careful. It feeds on invertebrates and aquatic plants. He doesn’t dive for food, but only plunges his head and neck. The seasonal migrations of swans are constant.
The decrease in the number of birds is associated with factors of anxiety, destruction of the habitat, and hunting.
You can recognize the mute swan by the red beak with a black growth and the manner of folding the wings "house". Neck with a graceful bend. The weight of an individual is on average 6-14 kg. It lives on water bodies of the steppe and forest-steppe territories of Western Siberia. Prefers lakes with reed beds. Migrant.
The size of a bird with a large duck. Among the congeners stands out grayish, not black back. The throat is decorated with a bright chestnut stain. Nests in small ponds, as the bird takes off as if jumping out of the water.
The flight is fast, often accompanied by a loud gaggling of a bird. Feels confident in air and water. Dives with a dive up to 2 minutes. Prefers wetlands. In the diet, fish, aquatic invertebrates. It occurs in Siberian reservoirs from April to October.
A bird weighing approximately 3 kg. Contrast color - black top with a greenish-copper tint, white bottom. Beak, legs are red. In flight, the stork cranes its neck, flaps its wings deeply and slowly. Shy storks in danger even throw a nest with eggs, chicks.
It lives in a mountain-taiga environment, where there are wetlands and shallow lakes. It feeds on fish, invertebrate animals, mollusks, insects. Like others migratory birds of Siberia, storks migrate in autumn in packs of 10-15 individuals.
Large goose with a black beak and an orange stripe and legs. The shape of the beak and the shape of the orange spot are highly variable in young and adult individuals at different breeding sites. Birds are not very attached to water, although they swim and dive very well.
Perfectly walk on the ground. In case of danger, they do not hide, but run. Many birds of Eastern Siberia, including bean goose, prefers moist river valleys, moss swamps, lakes.
The basis of nutrition is plant food: berries, herbs.In flights, they are fed on grain and rice fields.
In Siberia, there are enough places inaccessible to humans. Swamps with an insidious bog - one of them. Peculiar landscapes with excessive humidity have become the habitat of a number of birds, adapted to an amazing environment.
The size of a drink from a goose. The bird is a reddish-brown color with many mottles, longitudinal and transverse. It lives on the swampy shores of reservoirs with thickets of reeds and reeds. A bird nests in impenetrable tall grass.
A large bittern feeds on aquatic invertebrates, fish, and amphibians. The voice of the drink is heard for 2-3 km. A loud cry is compared to the roar of a bull. The bird makes a sound with the help of the esophagus, which works like a resonator.
The size of the moon is close to the size of a crow. The plumage of the tail, wings, head is gray, other areas are black. It feeds on small invertebrate organisms. The inhabitant of the swamps is found from April to October.
The size of a bird from a pigeon, a little larger. The color is reddish-brown. The inhabitant of the Baikal swamps. The beak and legs are long, adapted for movement along the bog and the extraction of small invertebrates. Builds nests from thick stems with high grassy bedding.
The size of the bird is larger than the goose. The plumage of the body is gray, the wings are black. Most of the time spends in wetlands, but nests in dry areas. Mixed feed is in the diet: plant food predominates, but in summer the bird catches fish, invertebrates.
Birds living in Siberiaare extremely diverse. They inhabit almost all areas of vast space. The role of many birds is very important in maintaining the ecological balance of natural ecosystems.